[Summary from: The Journal of Educators Online, 2010]
This study sought to examine instructor immediacy and presence in an online learning environment in relation to student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. It found a statistically significant positive relationship between instructor immediacy and presence. It also found that the linear combination of instructor immediacy and presence is a statistically significant predictor of student affective learning, cognition, and motivation.
Baker, C. (2010). The Impact Instructor of Immediacy and Presence for Online Student Affective Learning, Cognition and Motivation, The Journal of Educators Online, 7 (1).