[Summary from: Journal of Distance Education, 2008]
The objective of this research was to compare the quality and quantity of teacher and student interaction in an online versus face-to-face learning environment. Student participation were counted and rated using the five major phases of the model. While most student interactions reflected the lower levels of the model, some students in each delivery context demonstrated higher levels of knowledge construction. Students experiencing each delivery method were successful in the course and mastered complex, abstract concepts.
Cragg, C., Dunning, J., Ellis, J. (2008). Teacher and Student Behaviors in Face-to-Face and Online Courses: Dealing with Complex Concepts, Journal of Distance Education, 22 (3).